The most important exercises students can do as they learn to write (a close second to, well, writing lots and lots of stuff) all feature responding to feedback.
That said, here’s what most of my experiences with giving students feedback on writing used to look like:
Scenario: A student turns in an essay. Normal for a high school student, it’s full of syntax errors, it has stylistic problems, it is hard to follow, and it has some specious arguments.
Student: Mr. Wolk, why’d I get a bad grade on this essay?
Me: You didn’t get a “bad grade.” This is a work in progress, and the red marks show you where your paper needs work. The grade is an indication of how close to your goal you are.
Student Response 1: Well, I can’t read your red marks.
Student Response 2: So, all I have to do is fix the stuff in red and it’ll be an A?
Student Response 3: But why didn’t you like the paper?
Student Response 1 is a problem because I put 15 minutes into making the corrections, and that time is wasted if the student (and I, probably) can’t read my writing.
Student Response 2 is a problem because it’s not about “fixing” or “making corrections,” it’s about editing and improving. Student papers need retooling, sometimes. Or a student needs to go back to – well, not square one, necessarily, but square 2, and reformulate an argument and the proof for the argument. This will not be a 2 minute “fix,” and I don’t want him to think it is. But it will make him a better writer and a master of the material.
Student Response 3 is a problem because the students have learned that teachers grade work with a desirable grade when they “like” it. And that is a dangerous but understandable conclusion for students to draw. It is counterproductive to the meta-goal of learning how to take criticism for the benefit of the product – and it teaches that setback is bad. Unlikable. Yucky.
What students need is a clear workflow for learning the process of editing work.
if the essay is a major part of the curriculum, including outlines and multiple drafts, then each step is built-in and planned for. Students learn that preparation for writing, a good first try, feedback, and revision is part of the creative process.
But if this is an in-class essay, or a smaller summative assessment, or a mid-unit check-in, you may not have time (in the calendar) for an initial deadline, and a second deadline. And some students may turn in work that satisfies the requirements of the essay. Will you require rewrites for every student? Do you actually have time to grade second drafts for every student?
Finally, if time is short for you, like it is for all teachers, you find that chasing after multiple drafts of an essay in order to check to see if revisions were actually completed is frustrating — and then flipping back and forth between two documents (or two paper copies) is cumbersome.
How can we streamline the incredibly important process of students receiving, reflecting on, and responding to critique?
1. Do revisions or edits in a format like Google Docs, using the Insert Comment feature. This ensures that the student can read the comment.
- Include simple corrections and also links to digital documents containing pre-made primers/reviews on the most common writing errors or anything you’ve been focusing on in class. (Passive vs. active voice, transitions, how to cite, etc).
- You can play with different platforms that allow you to comment in a Google Doc with words, crayon, voice, or even video!
2. Students write essays in the left side of a two column grid. The left side is for the first draft. The right side is for the second draft.
- This allows you to see the second draft right next to the first draft. Much easier to see if revisions are made!
3. Unless you are doing a full-scale essay with built in deadlines for outlines and revisions, consider making revisions optional. Here’s how:
- On the final comment of the essay, include an interim score. Summarize and explain the interim score.
- Students can recover 50% of any lost credit by perfecting the second draft. (For example, a student who earns a 70% on the first draft can earn an 85 on the second. This encourages students to submit quality work up front, rather than procrastinate until the the rewrite for their best effort.
- Any error constituting a party foul (a silly misspelling, confusing too/to/two, etc.) earns a “strike.” 3 strikes loses 10%, unrecoverable. Students are thus encouraged to proofread before turning in work, rather than relying on you to be their personal editor. Any student who wants or needs your proofreading assistance in advance can meet with you (this meeting should be required – again, you’re not their personal editor) and you will proofread the work together. This reduces “learned helplessness.”
- Clarify when the deadline is for the second draft. I advise ONE WEEK from the receipt of the revisions.
- If there is anything about the essay that the student is unlikely to be able to fix on his/her own (whether it’s technical, grammatical, nuanced, or value-based), require a face-to-face meeting before the student begins working on it. If you’re using a program like Schedule Once to make appointments with students, include the link to your scheduling page right in the comment!
- Students have 1 week from the moment the paper is graded write a revision and tell you in an email (this must be required) that the paper is revised. As these papers come in, flag them and grade them in batches.
- If you’re using a Learning Management System or Electronic Grade Book, copy and paste your final inserted comment into the grade-book. At the end of the semester, you have a great start to a content-filled narrative for the students.
- For high achieving students who are aiming for an A in the class, a B+ interim grade is often sufficient to entice them to do a second draft.
- Students who bomb their first draft should earn a much lower grade than you would otherwise have given them, since you will want them to do a second draft. In other words, don’t reward a mediocre paper with a mediocre grade. Give a grade low enough to send the message that the paper is not acceptable – and that the benefit of a second draft is, indeed, required.
- Give an A- to a highly achieving student who performs just under his/her capacity, who you would like to focus on other class goals (say, in the weeks before a major project). These students may opt not to do a second draft, and the A- sends the message: “Feel free to raise your grade, but it won’t hurt you if you need to start studying for the AP test.”
- Use ClassDojo to record information about students who bomb their first drafts but do not bother to submit a second draft – or students who are required to meet with you who simply turn in a second draft, (thereby making the same mistakes they made the first time). These students (and their parents) will benefit from this type of very thoughtful “student-ethic” feedback.
I invite readers to visit part one and two of this three part series on teaching writing.